Status of MCT Focal Plane Arrays in France

 

Abstract :


This paper describes the recent developments of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) infrared technologies in France at Sofradir and CEA-LETI made in the frame of the common laboratory named DEFIR.
Among these developments, one can find the crystal growth of high quality and large Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) substrates which is one of the fundamental keys for high quality and affordable detectors. These last years, a great effort was done on this topic and also on MCT epilayer process from Short Waves (SW) to Very Long Waves (VLW).
These developments about the quality of the material are needed for the challenge of the High Operating Temperature (HOT). Over these lasts years, the operating temperature of n/p MCT detectors was increase of several tens of Kelvin. In addition the development of the p/n MCT technology that reduces dark current by a factor ~100 saves about twenty Kelvin more. The next step for the increase in operating temperature will be the complex photodiodes architectures using molecular beam epilayer.
The reduction of the pixel pitches is another challenge for infrared technologies for Small Weight and Power (SWAP) detectors. Moreover, this reduction allows the increase in the resolution and consequently in the detection range of the systems.
In addition, last results on 3rd generation detectors such as multicolor focal plan arrays, 2D, 3D, low noise and high images rate focal plane array using Avalanche Photodiose (APD) are described.
Key word : Infrared, MCT, HOT, SWAP, APD, small pixel pitch, large format 


Abstract 100 words :

This paper describes the recent developments of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) infrared technologies in France at Sofradir and CEA-LETI made in the frame of the common laboratory named DEFIR.
Among these developments, one can find the crystal growth of high quality and large Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) substrates which is one of the fundamental keys for high quality and affordable detectors. These last years, a great effort was done on this topic and also on MCT epilayer process from Short Waves (SW) to Very Long Waves (VLW).
These developments about the quality of the material are needed for the challenge of the High Operating Temperature (HOT). Over these lasts years, the operating temperature of n/p MCT detectors was increase of several tens of Kelvin. In addition the development of the p/n MCT technology that reduces dark current by a factor ~100 saves about twenty Kelvin more. The next step for the increase in operating temperature will be the complex photodiodes architectures using molecular beam epilayer.
The reduction of the pixel pitches is another challenge for infrared technologies for Small Weight and Power (SWAP) detectors. Moreover, this reduction allows the increase in the resolution and consequently in the detection range of the systems.
In addition, last results on 3rd generation detectors such as multicolor focal plan arrays, 2D, 3D, low noise and high images rate focal plane array using Avalanche Photodiose (APD) are described.

 

Authors : Michel VUILLERMET, David BILLON-LANFREY, Gérard DESTEFANIS